Middleware and Platforms for Industrial IoT (IIoT) based on Fog Computing
Fog Computing is a paradigm that has a place between Cloud Computing and the IoT and aims to move the computing capacity as close as possible to where the information is produced in order to reduce response time and bandwidth and increasing security in critical and distributed applications. This paradigm has special application in environments that generate a large amount of information and whose latency requirements and/or existing network limitations do not allow this information to be processed in cloud environments. In this research line, ERTIS focuses on the development of middleware and platforms that allow managing and deploying the life cycle of these applications to meet the established requirements and their perfect adaptation to the IoT, in addition to adapting current solutions to this type of environments to optimize their computing cycle.
Safety, Reliability and Fault Tolerance in IIoT
Unlike microprocessors, Moore's Law increasingly brings with embedded and lower-consumption devices in the IoT, which allow a wide range of opportunities such as microchip implants and devices with a long-life expectancy without the need of a power source. Applications that require the use of these IoT devices as data sources or actuators cannot tolerate a service outage on them, especially those whose mission is critical, such as monitoring the structural health of infrastructures. However, due to the existing nature and limitations of IoT devices, traditional replication and fault tolerance techniques and algorithms are limited in this field. ERTIS focuses its research efforts on providing replication mechanisms and fault tolerance that having the minimum impact on embedded devices so that they can be used by critical applications.
Deep and distributed neural networks over the Edge, Fog and Cloud Computing
Deep neural networks have been widely used in applications such as image and video recognition and classification and anomaly detection, generally designed to be used in large processing systems such as Cloud solutions. Currently, there is a trend to implement and distribute these networks in the computing that goes from the IoT to the Cloud in order to facilitate the generation of critical actions, the reduction of bandwidth, and the improvement of their precision, among other aspects. ERTIS investigates how to integrate these networks with message distribution systems to enable their distribution in Edge, Fog and Cloud Computing frameworks, manage their deployment on these paradigms, and in their application for Structural Health of Critical Infrastructure.
IoT integration - Blockchain
Blockchain is based on the concept of block of chains, in which the information contained is grouped into sets (blocks), which are inteconnected with each other through a timeline and so that, thanks to cryptographic techniques, only this information can be edited or repudiated if the entire timeline is modified. The consensus mechanisms that support the creation of these blocks make their editing extremely costly in computational terms, which allows providing reliability and security to the system and its information. In addition, its decentralized nature reduces the reliability and security problems of centralized environments, while improving its adaptation to other merely distributed systems such as the IoT. ERTIS investigates through the integration of IoT and Blockchain how to improve the identification and security of embedded devices, and the immutable recording of critical IoT information so that it can be reliably audited when required.
Critical Systems Applications (infrastructure monitoring, smart grids)
The application of our research work is one of the fundamental pillars of the ERTIS research group. This research has been funded and applied through regional, national and European projects in the following areas:
- Monitoring of the structural health of civil infrastructures. The continuous monitoring and protection of these infrastructures is a priority for multiple government institutions and the safety of the population.
- Smart grids. Improving flexibility and endurance in electrical distribution networks through energy balancing and the IoT are essential to accommodate new energy demand factors such as electric cars.